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The arrival of the 5G era has accelerated the rapid development of the Internet of Things industry. So in such an era, how can the Internet of Things and sensors complement each other and promote new opportunities and challenges?
1. The hierarchy of the Internet of Things
It can be seen from the IoT hierarchy diagram that the IoT is mainly composed of four parts: the perception layer, the network layer, the support layer and the application layer. There is a saying goes: the underlying foundation determines the superstructure. As one of the important components of the IoT perception layer, the importance of the sensor as the basis of the entire Internet of Things is self-evident.
The vast amount of data information in the IoT system comes from the terminal device, and the source data of the terminal device can be attributed to the sensor. The sensor gives the “sensory” function of everything. For example, humans rely on the visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile senses to perceive the surrounding environment. Sensors can also sense the surrounding environment and are more accurate and sensible than human perception. For example, humans cannot accurately perceive the specific temperature value of an object through the sense of touch, can’t perceive thousands of high temperatures, also cannot distinguish subtle temperature changes, but the sensor can do it. It can be said that the sensor is the "language" of the communication between objects and objects in the "Internet of Everything" era.
2. The sensors hold an important position
Because the sensing layer is the root and core of the IoT, sensor technology plays a very important role in the development of the entire IoT industry, and has become the biggest bottleneck restricting the development of China's Internet of Things.
The IoT has been proposed for more than 20 years, but the scale of sensor deployment has not been popularized, resulting in insufficient physical layer, resulting in insufficient data and restricting industrial development from the source. Sensor deployment as an IoT infrastructure, many years ago the country proposed a trillion sensor revolution to promote the use of 1 trillion sensors per year in social infrastructure and public services, and expects to embed 100 trillion sensors into 2030 Various places.
The intelligent sensor has multi-component integrated circuits for information collection, information processing, information exchange and information storage functions. It is a system-level product integrating sensor chip, communication chip, microprocessor, driver and software algorithm.
In the era of intelligent sensing of the Internet of Things, smart sensors are one of the key technologies for realizing the Internet of Things. In many IoT scenarios, sensors have the characteristics of intelligent sensors, which will play a huge role in the fields of industry, agriculture, medical care, and transportation. In the future sensor market, the proportion of smart sensors will become larger and larger.
3. The trend of sensors
Small sensors drive the digital revolution, and the factory brings a new industrial revolution with digital background. Nowadays, from the ubiquitous smart cameras to the various sensors deployed in every corner of the city, the various data of the city are collected and processed by cloud AI technology, which helps to improve the public management of cities such as traffic and streets ability. All of this seems to be built on the sensor, so what direction will the sensor develop in the future?
Micro-sensors are micro electro-mechanical systems based on semiconductor integrated circuit technology. Micro-machining technology is used to package micro-scale sensitive components, signal processors and data processing devices on a single chip, has obvious advantages such as small size, low cost and easy integration. It can improve system test accuracy. Now It has begun to replace existing products with MEMS-based sensors. With the further development of microelectronic processing technology, especially nanofabrication technology, sensor technology will also evolve from microsensors to nanosensors. The development and application of miniature sensors will be increasingly favored in various fields.
The intelligent sensor is a combination of one or more sensitive components, microprocessors, peripheral control and communication circuits, and intelligent software systems. It combines monitoring, judgment, and information processing functions. It has many features compared to traditional sensors. For example, it can determine the working state of the sensor and correct the measurement data to reduce the errors caused by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. It can solve the problem that the hardware is difficult to solve with, it can complete the data calculation and processing work. Moreover, the accuracy, range coverage, signal-to-noise ratio, intelligence level, remote maintainability, accuracy, stability, reliability and interchangeability of smart sensors are much higher than those of general sensors.
3) Imitation biochemistry
Biomimetic sensors are devices that automatically capture information, process information, and mimic human behavior by simulating human behaviors such as sight, hearing, feeling, smell, and thinking. In recent years, biomedical and electronics, engineering A new type of information technology developed through mutual penetration. With the further development of biotechnology and other technologies, in the near future, biomimetic sensors simulating biological functions will surpass the capabilities of human facial features, improving the current robot's vision, taste, touch and ability to operate on target objects. We will see the broad prospects of bionic sensor applications.
4) Wireless network
With the development of communication technology and the wide application of wireless technology, wireless technology is also applied to sensor technology. For example, in hydrological observations, hydrological information is collected by sensors and then transmitted to the centralized control platform via wireless technology, so that we can monitor the hydrological information of each point on the control platform. In space technology, we send the sensor's collected data back to the ground through satellites to understand the various situations in space.
4. Opportunities and challenges
In many countries, the IoT industry will become a trillion-dollar emerging industry, and the IoT has a very broad development prospect. The sensor is the basic detection terminal that constitutes the IoT. It is an important technology for the development of the IoT, so the sensor technology has naturally become the focus of the market. The application market for sensors is very extensive, which is a great opportunity for the sensor industry.
The challenge for the sensor industry in the Internet of Things is the need for a wide variety of sensor products to meet the measurement requirements of everything. The integration of sensors meets the comprehensive requirements of detection, processing and transmission systems; the network of sensors and low-power characteristics create green electronics and support low-carbon and environmentally-friendly applications. This is undoubtedly a huge challenge for the sensor industry.